August 1968 - Victims of the Occupation

The August invasion of five Warsaw Pact armies and their actions in Czechoslovakia claimed lives and a succession of seriously injured from among the Czechoslovak population. The greatest losses followed the Soviet soldiers’ encounter with an unarmed crowd in the vicinity of the Czechoslovak Radio building in Prague. Victims were announced not only from additional locations in the capital city, but also from other cities and communities (Liberec, Brno, Bratislava, Kosice, Poprad and more). On the first day of the occupation alone, dozens of people were wounded, many of them seriously. Losses carried on further days, weeks and months. In total, the occupation of Czechoslovakia claimed 108 lives through the end of the year 1968, with another 500 seriously injured and hundreds more slightly injured.

BOHEMIA AND MORAVIA

SLOVAKIA



SOUTH BOHEMIA REGION

BALOUN Vaclav

Václav Baloun (b. 6.9.1946, d. 11.9.1968 Haklovy Dvory)
Czech nationality. Skilled bricklayer. Residence Haklovy Dvory. Shot by a soviet guard not far from Haklovy Dvory on September 11. Czechoslovak security was notified of the case several hours later, once he had already died.

KAHOUN Alois

(b. 22.5.1929 Kojkovice, d. 29.9.1968 Ponesice)
Czech nationality. Musician with the South Bohemian Theater. On September 29, a Soviet armored troop-carrier pulled out at a high speed onto a blind section of highway by Hluboke nad Vltavou going the wrong way in a curve. A motorcycle traveling in the opposite direction ran into it; A. Kahoun died on the site.

NETUSIL Eduard

Eduard Netušil (b. 25.11.1946, d. 30.8.1968 Ceske Budejovice)
Czech nationality. On August 30, 1968, a driver of an unlit Soviet troop-carrier tried to turn his vehicle around on a narrow highway between Ceske Budejovice and Roznov. When a motorcycle driven by E. Netusil, carrying passenger A. Dvorakova, overtook it, the vehicle unexpectedly reversed. The motorcyclist crashed into a tree and died on the spot.

PANIK Jaroslav

(b. 7.7.1930 Prague, d. 28.8.1968)
Czech nationality. On August 28 at the Hluboka nad Vltavou and Lhotice junction, the driver of a Soviet armored troop-carrier did not give the right of way to a taxi driving on the main highway. Three people were seriously injured; J. Panik died in transit to the hospital.

SOUKUP Bohumir

Bohumír Soukup (b. 5.11.1921 Sezimovo Usti, d. 5.9.1968 Hrabice)
Czech nationality. Construction engineer with the national enterprise Kovosvit Sezimovo Usti. Residence Sezimovo Usti. On September 5, he was driving to approve the construction of a Kovosvit recreation center. On the way, his business vehicle’s exhaust started to “shoot.” When the Soviet soldiers heard the sound, they thought someone was firing at them, and sounded the alarm. A sniper let fly two bursts of automatic fire on the vehicle from behind. Three bullets reached the car; one of them killed B. Soukup on the spot.

STOJEC Lubos

(b. 1937, d. 2.9.1968)
Czech nationality. Taxi driver. On August 28 at the Hluboka nad Vltavou and Lhotice junction, the driver of a Soviet armored troop-carrier did not give right of way to a taxi driving on the main highway. Three people were seriously injured; L. Stojec succumbed to his injuries.


PRAGUE AND CENTRAL BOHEMIA REGION

ALBERT Pavel

(b. 2.1.1934, d. 21.8.1968 Prague)
Czech nationality. Died by the radio station as a result of damage and swelling of the brain resulting from a splinter fracture of the occipital bone and cranial cavity, probably after jumping from the window of a burning building.

BABOROVSKY Jan

(b. 7.4.1896, d. 21.8.1968 Prague)
Czech nationality. Retiree. Burned to death in his apartment across from the radio station.

BERANEK Miroslav

Miroslav Beránek (b. 8.3.1952 Kolin, d. 10.9.1968 Prague)
Czech nationality. Printer’s apprentice. Shot by a drunken Soviet soldier on Opletalova Street in Prague. Died several hours later as a result of penetration wounds in the lungs and stomach.

BULIK Josef

(b. 5. 11. 1909, d. 21. 8. 1968 Dolní Kralovice)
Czech nationality. Crushed by a Soviet tank at a newsstand.

DAVIDEK Pavel

(b. 19. 12. 1939 Praha, d. 10. 9. 1968 Uhříněves)
Czech nationality. Agricultural engineer – research worker. Perished upon impact of a tank into his vehicle, a Trabant.

HANUS Josef

(b. 12.4.1898, d. 21.8.1968 Prague)
Czech nationality. Retiree. Shot in his apartment not far from the radio station. Died as a result of a fatal hemorrhage, multiple bullet wounds in the right lumbar region, shattering of the liver and lower lobe of the right lung.

HNULIK Vladimir

Vladimír Hnulík (b. 16.10.1949 Kolin, d. 21.8.1968 Prague)
Czech nationality. Student. Shot by the radio station. Died of bleeding pectoral cavity, contusion of the lungs, fracture of the backbone, ribs and brachial bones.

CHAROUSKOVA Marie

Marie Charousková (b. 25.10.1942 Otryby-Podveky, Kutna Hora district, d. 26.8.1968 Prague)
Czech nationality. Worker at the Agricultural Research Institute. Shot at Klarov. Died in the hospital as a result of penetration wounds of the large and small intestine and right artery by the coxal vein.

JENSOVSKY Jan

Jan Jenšovský (b. 27.1.1932 Prague, d. 25.8.1968 Prague)
Czech nationality. Skilled artist and sign maker. Shot August 21, 1968 in Prague 6, not far from the Powder Tower. Died as a result of a penetration wound to the stomach.

KADERABKOVA Bedriska

(b. 14.9.1898 Prague, d. 27.8.1968 Prague)
Czech nationality. Retiree. Felled by a tank in Smichov. Died as a result of post-operation lobular pneumonia.

KADLEC Milan

Milan Kadlec (b. 26.9.1947, d. 21.8.1968 Prague)
Czech nationality. Toolmaker for the Prague Public Transit Company. Felled by a cargo truck near the radio station. Died as a result of bleeding to the left pectoral cavity, tearing of the left lung and heart, fracture of the 2nd-5th ribs on the left and fracture of the left arm.

KLAPKA Jiri

(b. 2.7.1940, d. 21.8.1968 Prague)
Czech nationality. Jumped from the window of a burning building on Vinohradska Street. Died of asphyxiation caused by blood inhalation, fracture of the skull and contusion of the brain after the fall from a height.

KRAHULEC Jindrich

(b. 31.7.1948, d. 21.8.1968 Prague)
Czech nationality. Conductor with Czechoslovak Railways (CSD). Shot in Charles Square; died of contusion of the brain.

KUBES Jaroslav

Jaroslav Kubeš (b. 10.9.1949 Praha, d. 21.8.1968 Praha)
Czech nationality. Chef. Felled by a cargo truck near the radio station. Died as a result of crushing of the head; further suffered from fracture of the left fore-arm.

LAITA Ivan

Ivan Laita (b. 15.5.1950 Praha, d. 21.8.1968 Praha)
Czech nationality. Auto mechanic. Hit by a fragment from an exploded Soviet tank near the radio station. Died as a result of injury to inner organs.

LAMPER MILAN

Milan Lamper (b. 17.7.1949, d. 21.8.1968 Praha)
Slovak nationality. Construction worker. Shot by the radio station in Prague. Died as a result of a penetration wound to the chest and bleeding of the pectoral cavity.

MALEK Jaroslav

(b. 16.6.1945, d. 21.8.1968 Praha)
Czech nationality. Hit by a fragment that flew from a blown-up Soviet tank near the radio station. Died as a result of munition explosion, bleeding into the abdominal cavity, shattering of the liver, ruptures of the abdominal aorta.

MUSICH Mario

(b. 12.9.1948, d. 21.8.1968 Praha)
Czech nationality. Apprentice at Tesla Strasnice. Died by the radio station as a result of bullet wounds (according to Public Security records) or from being felled by a cargo truck at the same site (according to the testimony of a classmate).

NEMEC Karel

(b. 7.11.1952 Praha, d. 24.8.1968 Praha)
Czech nationality. Apprentice. Shot by the Podoli waterworks. Died as a result of perforation wounds to the heart and chest.

NOVAK Frantisek

 František Novák (b. 22.12.1922 Nova Hospoda, Prague-East district, d. 27.8.1968 Zelivec, Prague-East district)
Czech nationality. Hairdresser. Run over by a Soviet tank. Died from shattering of the pelvis and fractures of the femur.

NOVAK Jaroslav

Jaroslav Novák (b. 1.5.1942 Gottwaldov, today Zlin, d. 21.8.1968 Prague)
Czech nationality. Site manager. Hit by a fragment that flew from a blown-up tank near the radio station. Died of shock resulting from splinter fracture of the pelvis, contusion of the femoral and stomach wall muscles and bleeding behind the peritoneum.

PARISEK Karel

(b. 6.8.1953 Prague, d. 24.8.1968 Prague)
Czech nationality. Apprentice. Shot by the Podoli waterworks. Died as a consequence of a penetration wound to the head.

PRIHODA Zdenek

Zdeněk Příhoda (b. 27.11.1941 Praha, d. 21.8.1968 Praha)
Czech nationality. Construction worker. Felled by a tank on Cernokostelecka Street in Prague 10. Died in Vinohrady Hospital of bleeding into the pectoral cavity, tearing of the lungs and multiple broken ribs. He further suffered from a fracture of the right femur and a sprain of the left clavicle.

REICHL Josef

Josef Reichl (b. 3.10.1945, d. 21.8.1968 Praha)
Czech nationality. Driver’s mate. Felled by a cargo truck near the radio station. He died from the consequences of a contusion to the head.

REPA Bedrich

(b. 13.9.1909, d. 21.8.1968 Praha)
Czech nationality. Shot on Manesova Street. Died as a consequence of a penetration wound to the stomach and post-operation lobular pneumonia.

SADILEK Vaclav

(b. 13.3.1924, d. 21.8.1968 Praha)
Czech nationality. Traffic dispatcher. Felled by a cargo truck near the radio station. Died as a result of contusion to the thorax.

SOKOL Frantisek

(b. 29.12.1888 Kostelec, Chrudim district, d. 31.8.1968 Pribram)
Czech nationality. Retiree. Injured by a Soviet Army tanker on the highway between Radonice and Satalice. Died in Hospital Na Bulovce.

SVEC Jaroslav

Jaroslav Švec (b. 11.2.1924 Hradec Kralove, d. 21.8.1968 Prague)
Czech nationality. Section leader at the company Railway Construction Prague. Hit by a fragment that flew from a blown-up Soviet tank by the radio station. Died as a result of contusion of the neck and loss of blood.

TROUSIL Otto

(b. 3.4.1930 Prague, d. 21.8. 1968 Svarov)
Czech nationality. Public Security officer. Felled by a Soviet military vehicle while driving a motorcycle.

VESELA Bozena

Božena Veselá (b. 16.12.1894 Krizova, Havlickuv Brod district, d. 21.8.1968 Dolni Kralovice)
Czech nationality. Newsstand worker. Crushed by a Soviet tank in her newsstand.

WINTER Zdenek

(b. 10.6.1947 Prague, d. 21.8.1968 Prague)
Czech nationality. Laborer. Felled by a Soviet tank while riding a motorcycle on Cernokostelecka Street in Prague. Died as a result of bleeding into the pectoral cavity, tearing of the lungs and aorta, broken crania, and bleeding of the cerebellum.


NORTH BOHEMIA REGION

BREZINA Vincenc

(b. 8.6.1901 Dolni Redice, d. 12.9.1968 Liberec)
Czech nationality. On August 21, he was buried under caved-in masonry during the impact of a Soviet tank into an archway of a building on the square in Liberec. Suffered from splinter fractures of both shinbones, combined with further complications and gangrene. Died from pneumonia in Liberec Hospital. After 1989, a statue was unveiled at Liberec City Hall in the victim’s honor.

CIZEK Miroslav

(b. 17.2.1945, Detenice-Brodek, d. 21.8.1968 Liberec)
Czech nationality. On August 21, a Soviet tank steered into the square in Liberec into an archway, which partially collapsed. M. Cizek was buried under falling masonry and died in transit to the hospital. After 1989, a statue was unveiled at Liberec City Hall in the victim’s honor.

DRAGOUN Zdenek

Zdeněk Dragoun (b. 4.1.1949 Jablonec nad Nisou, d. 21.8.1968 Liberec)
Czech nationality. Trained as an office machine mechanic. Died in transit to the hospital. The cause of death was a penetration wound to the thorax and resulting bleeding into the pleural cavity. After 1989, a statue was unveiled at Liberec City Hall in the victim’s honor.

FIALKA Josef

Josef Fialka (b. 11.12 1903 Kosmonosy, d. 21.8.1968 Liberec)
Czech nationality. Mechanical engineer in retirement; employed by the Housing Authority of the City of Liberec. Shot by City Hall; died in Liberec Hospital on August 12, 1968 at 12:30 pm as a result of a penetration wound to the stomach and resulting bleeding into the peritoneal cavity. After 1989, a statue was unveiled at Liberec City Hall in the victim’s honor.

FRIDRICH Petr

Petr Fridrich (b. 15.11.1940 Zlic, d. 22.8.1968 Usti nad Labem)
Czech nationality. Driver by profession. On the night of August 21, he was felled by a Soviet tank in Predlice. He succumbed to his injuries on August 22 in the hospital in Usti nad Labem.

KLUC Frantisek

(b. 24.3.1924 Nesuchyne, d. 25.9.1968 Necemice)
Czech nationality. Track-shift supervisor at Zatec railway station. Shot by a Soviet deserter on a rural road near Necemice. The soldier stole his automobile and tried to escape the scene of the incident.

KOBR Bohumil

(b. 26.4.1896 Cerhenice, d. 21.8.1968 Liberec)
Czech nationality. Previous profession typographer; in retirement in the year 1968. Seriously wounded on August 21 in the square in Liberec by a Soviet Army cargo tank-car. His auto tried to avoid the tank, which ran into an archway. He died in Liberec Hospital as a result of multiple fractures of the ribs and compression of the thorax. After 1989, a statue was unveiled at Liberec City Hall in the victim’s honor.

KULIS Jindrich

Jindřich Kuliš (b. 14.5.1943 Prague, d. 21.8.1968 Liberec)
Czech nationality. Draftsman. Shot on August 21 by a soldier of the Soviet army; died in Liberec Hospital as a result of a penetration wound to the thorax and stomach and resulting bleeding. After 1989, a statue was unveiled at Liberec City Hall in the victim’s honor.

LIVECKOVA Eva

Eva Livečková (b. 2.6.1937 Blatna, d. 23.8.1968 Liberec)
Czech nationality. Nurse. On August 21 by the tram stop island not far from the post office in Liberec, she was hit from behind to the neck by a Soviet soldier’s bullet. She succumbed to her wounds in Liberec Hospital on August 23. After 1989, a statue was unveiled at Liberec City Hall in the victim’s honor.

OPRENDEK ONDREJ

Ondrej Oprendek (b. 30.11.1936 Lendak, d. 14.9.1968 Velemin)
Slovak nationality. During the night from 11-12 September, 1968, he was wrongfully accused by Soviet soldiers of stealing alcohol. They took him from the village, where he was beaten and shot several times. After 28 hours he was taken to the hospital, where he succumbed to his injuries.

STARY Rudolf

Rudolf Starý (b. 6.6.1905 Jermanice, d. 21.8.1968 Liberec)
Czech nationality. Original profession bricklayer; in retirement in 1968, worked with volunteer brigades in Liberec. On August 21, 1968, he left his home in the morning to go by train to Liberec. He was shot in the square. According to the doctor, he was probably hit by a ricocheting bullet that resulted in injury to the lungs and consequential bleeding into the pleural cavity. After 1989, a statue was unveiled at Liberec City Hall in the victim’s honor.

SKAVOVA Dagmar

(b. 21.9.1960 Hradec Kralove, d. 21.8.1968 Desna)
Czech nationality. Schoolgirl. On August 21 in Desna while descending a long, protracted hill, the brakes of a Soviet tank-car malfunctioned in a turn, and it ran into the building of Jablonec glassworks, resulting in the explosion of fuel, followed by a fire. D. Skavova and her grandmother perished in the accident.

VESELY Stanislav

Stanislav Veselý (b. 20.11.1924 Prague, d. 24.8.1968 Liberec)
Czech nationality. Maintenance man. Seriously wounded on August 21 by a Soviet soldier while standing near an installed barometer. The bullet hit him in the thorax. The cause of death was damage to the spinal cord and resulting organ paralysis. He died as a consequence of his wounds in Liberec Hospital on August 24. After 1989, a statue was unveiled at Liberec City Hall in the victim’s honor.

VODAKOVA Marie

(b. 17.9.1894 Vienna, d. 21.8.1968 Desna)
Czech nationality. Retiree. On August 21 in Desna while descending a long, protracted hill, the brakes of a Soviet tank-car malfunctioned in a turn, and it ran into the building of Jablonec glassworks, resulting in the explosion of fuel, followed by a fire. M. Vodakova and her granddaughter perished in the accident.


EAST BOHEMIA REGION

CHLUP Jaromir

Jaromír Chlup (b. 9.6.1929 Velka Roudka, d. 12.10.1968 Janov)
Czech nationality. Lieutenant Colonel of the Czechoslovak Army, doctor at the Army medical research and teaching institute J.E. Purkyne in Hradec Kralove.

CHLUPOVA Nadezda

Naděžda Chlupová (b. 11.3.1939 Sendrazice, d. 12.10.1968 Janov)
Czech nationality. Administrative clerk of the documentation department at the Army medical research and teaching institute J.E. Purkyne in Hradec Kralove.

CHLUP Miroslav

Miroslav Chlup (b. 13.12.1960 Tabor, d. 14.10.1968 Litomysl)
Czech nationality. Schoolboy. On August 12 on a straight section of highway between the towns of Svitavy and Litomysl a freight truck of the Soviet Army skid out for unexplained reasons. It turned around such that it blocked the entire roadway, thrust the Chlups’ car onto a hill and turned over on it. The parents died on the spot; three children were seriously wounded. Miroslav Chlup succumbed to his wounds in the hospital on August 14.

KLIMESOVA Zdenka

(b. 5.12.1912, d. 7.9.1968 Jicin)
Czech nationality. Laborer at the national enterprise ZPA Jicin. On September 7, a drunken Polish soldier at an intersection in Jicin started to shoot for no reason into the surroundings. Two people were killed, another five were injured, among them two Polish soldiers. After the year 1989, a statue was unveiled at the site of the shooting in the victim’s honor.

PULKRABKOVA Helena

(b. 4.10.1941 Hradec Kralove, d. 30.10.1968 Svitavy)
Czech nationality. Laboratory technician at East Slovak Mills and Bakeries. On August 30 at approximately 7:30 in the evening several kilometers from Svitavy, a convoy of Soviet military vehicles stopped for a rest. The last vehicle was a traveling workshop with a uni-axial welder that was not lit by rear lights and hid the lights of the freight car. In the approaching dusk, Jiri Pulkrabek, who was transporting his wife and her parents, crashed into the practically invisible welder. H. Pulkrabkova died on the spot; all the others were seriously wounded.

VESELY Jaroslav

Jaroslav Veselý (b. 26.4.1944, d. 7.9.1968 Jicin)
Czech nationality. Employee of the national enterprise Agrostroj. On September 7, a drunken Polish soldier at an intersection in Jicin started to shoot for no reason into the surroundings. Two people were killed, another five were injured, among them two Polish soldiers. After the year 1989 a statue was unveiled at the site of the shooting in the victim’s honor.


WEST BOHEMIA REGION

PICL Lubomir

(b. 12.5.1945, d. 7.9.1968 Kralovice u Plzne)
Czech nationality. On September 7 at night, a drunken L. Picl did not respect the directions of a traffic conductor and crashed into a Soviet armored troop-carrier on his motorcyle. He died on the spot; his passenger suffered serious injury.


SOUTH MORAVIA REGION

BOHAC Josef

(b. 13.3.1946 Prostejov, d. 25.8.1968 Prostejov)
Czech nationality. Worked as a laborer at the Sigma Lutin enterprise. On August 25 at around 8:00 pm, he was hit by a Soviet soldier’s bullet during the transit of a convoy of military vehicles through Prostejov.

DEBNAR Viliam

Viliam Debnár (b. 9.11.1938 Pukanec, Slovakia, d. 21.8.1968 Brno)
Czech nationality. Electrician with the national enterprise ZKL Brno. On August 21, he was bringing his five-year-old son home from their cottage. On Jedovnicka Street in Brno-Lisen, a Soviet soldier on patrol tried to stop them. Because according to him the driver did not react quickly enough, he began to shoot the vehicle, hit Debnar in the back and killed him on the spot. The young boy had to stay in the car with his dead father over an hour before he succeeded in breaking free. After the year 1989, a bronze statue in the shape of a Czechoslovak flag situated on a stone base was unveiled at the site of the tragic shooting.

FRYDRYCHOVSKY Vaclav

(b. 17.7.1949, d. 21.8.1968 Jihlava)
Czech nationality. Laborer from the Jihlava highway authorities. On August 21, during the transit of a Hungarian unit through Jihlava, he was felled by a tank. He was taken to Jihlava Hospital, where he died as a result of his wounds.

CHALUPA Karel

Karel Chalupa (b. 10.6.1914 Boleradice, d. 29.8.1968 Brno)
Czech nationality. Warrant officer with the Brno City Public Security Administration. On August 29 in the evening, a Soviet armored troop-carrier in Brno had problems with a flat tire and stopped by a bridge patrolled by an army guard. Public lighting was not working there, and the Soviet vehicle did not have its warning lights turned on. K. Chalupa did not see the troop-carrier in the dark, crashed into it with his personal automobile and died as a result of his injuries en route to the hospital.

LANG Ladislav

(b. 28.12.1897 Korycany, d. 25.8.1968 Prostejov)
Czech nationality. Retiree working as a guard at a mill in Cechovice. On August 25 around 8:00 pm, he was hit by a Soviet soldier’s bullet during the passage of a convoy of military vehicles through Prostejov.

RIHOVSKA Marta

(b. 8.8.1941 Prostejov, d. 25.8.1968 Prostejov)
Czech nationality. Housewife. On August 25 around 8:00 pm, she was hit by a Soviet soldier’s bullet during the passage of a convoy of military vehicles through Prostejov.

SUSANKOVA Ilja

(b. 5.1.1931 Klatovy, d. 25.8.1968 Bucovice)
Czech nationality. Victim of a Soviet soldier’s gunfire during the transit of an army convoy through Bucovice. She was hit through the closed window of her apartment and died on the spot of the fatal wounding.

TRECHOVA Anna

(b. 8.8.1931 Sajdikova Humence, Slovakia, d. 21.8.1968 Znojmo)
Slovak nationality. Employed as a laborer in Gumotex Breclav. She became the victim of a traffic accident. On August 21 around 9:20 pm, she was riding as a passenger in a personal car on the highway Znojmo-Brno. Near the village Tasovice, the vehicle passed a convoy of Russian tanks, at the same time as another military convoy was approaching from the opposite direction. The tanks stopped and one of them ran over the automobile from the right side while reversing. She succumbed due to serious injury to the spine.

VERWALTER Leopold

(b. 12.12.1909 Pohorelice, d. 12.10.1968 Pohorelice)
Czech nationality. Barber. On October 12, 1968, a Soviet Army truck drove through the city of Pohorelice at a markedly high speed. In a slightly left-turning curve by the church on the square, the driver did not control his driving and crashed into L. Verwalter, who was riding his bike along the sidewalk. The driver did not even slow down, but fled from the place of the accident.

ZEMLICKA Josef

Josef Žemlička (b. 25.3.1952 Brno, d. 21.8.1968 Brno)
Czech nationality. Apprentice at the national enterprise ZKL Brno. On August 21, he went out for a drive with friends to watch the arrival of occupation forces. At the edge of the city a Soviet guard prevented people from going further. Many of the people did not heed his instructions, however, and one of the soldiers opened fire in the direction of the roadway’s edge, without checking whether the place was empty. A random bullet hit Josef Zemlicka, who died on the way to the hospital. After the year 1989 at the MHD stop “Highway supply conduit,” a memorial plaque was unveiled representing the fallen one on a Czechoslovak flag.


NORTH MORAVIA REGION

LUZAR Jan

(b. 30.7.1917 Katerinky, d. 22.11.1968 Slavkov)
Czech nationality. Employee of the Jakartovice State Tractor Facility. On November 22 on the highway Opava-Olomouc, he crashed on a motorcycle while driving at a high speed into a standing, poorly lit freight car of the Soviet Army. He died shortly after the accident.

MODR Jiri

Jiří Modr (b. 15.6.1929 Beckov nad Vahom, Slovakia, d. 15.10.19968 Mosnov)
Slovak nationality. Major of the Czechoslovak Army, pilot. On October 15, he committed suicide by jumping under the wheel of a Soviet truck at the airport in Mosnov.

MUSEC Filip

(b. 23.12.1929 Caradice, d. 25.11.1968 Velka Bystrice)
Czech nationality. Technician with the Ostrava II Long-distance Line Administration, Velka Bystrice telephone station. On November 25 towards the evening, on the highway Olomouc-Lipnik n. Becvou not far from the telephone station Velka Bystrice, two trucks of the Soviet Army drove by. The second vehicle suddenly began to pass the first and moved into the lane going in the opposite direction, where it hit motorcyclist F. Musec, who died on the spot. Both vehicles continued on their way without stopping.

TOMSIKOVA Aloisie

(b. 20.6.1887, d. 25.11.1968 Valasske Mezirici)
Czech nationality. Retiree. Became the victim of an automobile accident that occurred around 10:00 am on November 11, 1968 in the village of Priluky. In a sharply left-turning curve, she was pinned down by a passing truck of the Soviet Army. She suffered concussion of the brain, fracture of four ribs, contusion of the right knee and scalping of the crown of the head. With these serious wounds she was taken to the hospital in Valasske Mezirici, where that day at 8:00 pm she died.


WEST SLOVAKIA REGION

HOLIK Jan

(b. 25.4.1923 Podem (Bulgaria), d. 21.8.1968 Bratislava)
Captain with Czechoslovak Danube Navigation. On August 21, 1968, at 12:30 pm, he was hit in the face by two bullets on Safarik Square near Komensky University in Bratislava. He died on the spot.

KOSANOVA Dana

Danka Košanová (b. 24.7.1953 Solosnica, d. 21.8.1968 Bratislava)
Slovak nationality. Student. On August 21, 1968 in the afternoon, she was shot in the lumbar area on the steps of Komensky University in Bratislava. She succumbed to her wounds after transport to the II. Surgical Clinic of the Faculty Hospital. She is buried in the Martin Cemetery in Bratislava.

LEGNER Peter

Peter Legner (b. 3.3. 1952 Bratislava, d. 22.8.1968 Bratislava)
Slovak nationality. Second-year apprentice at the junior chemistry college of the national enterprise Slovnaft Bratislava. On August 22, 1968 at around 1:00 pm, he was shot by the post office on SNP Square in Bratislava. He died in transit to the hospital. The cause of death was penetration wound to the thorax and abdomen with damaged internal organs and bleeding of the stomach cavity. He was buried at Martin Cemetery in Bratislava. On October 22, 1968, an interrogator of the City Public Security Administration discontinued prosecution into the case of manslaughter due to the inability to identify the Soviet soldier who had committed the shooting.

PAULIK Milan

Milan Paulík Sabol (b. 7.3.1955, d. 21.10.1968 Risnovce)
Slovak nationality. Elementary school student. On October 21, 1968, a military truck with a trailer drove through the village of Risnovce at above-average speed. In front of the cinema in the center of the village, it strayed from the road and hit a pile of sand where a group of children were standing. 13-year-old Milan Paulik, who was buried in the cemetery in Risnovce, died on the site. The driver of the car, the Hungarian Army soldier Laszlo Horvath, was acquitted because the alleged cause of the tragic accident was brake failure.

SIVAK Stanislav

(b. 12.2.1939 Bojnice, d. 21.8.1968 Bratislava)
Slovak nationality. Employed with Industrial Automation Works Prague – Bratislava supply plant. He was shot in the stomach on August 21, 1968 at 12:30 in Safarik Square near Komensky University in Bratislava. He was hit by a ricocheting bullet, and died in transit to the II. Surgical Clinic of the Faculty Hospital in Bratislava. He is buried in the cemetery in Bojnice.

SZVITYEL Jozef

(b. 16.12.1949 Neded, d. 26.11.1968 Bratislava)
Hungarian nationality. Employed by the national enterprise Priemstav Bratislava as a house painter. On August 21, he was shot in the back in Bratislava’s SNP Square by a Russian soldier who shot off bursts of automatic fire. He died as a result of his wounds after less than three months. He was buried in the cemetery in Neded.

RYBAROVA Viktoria

Viktória Rybárová (b.17.5.1901, d. 22.8.1968 Sulekovo)
Slovak nationality. Housewife, mother of five children. Early on the morning of August 21, 1968, she left for the bus to Leopoldov. At 4:15 am, a military convoy drove through the village of Sulekovo u Leopoldov. One of the tanks pinned Viktoria RYBAROVA down off the roadway and caused an accidental amputation of her left lower leg, contusion of the kidneys, stomach cavity and left side of the thorax. The tank did not stop after the accident, continuing on its way. After examination in the hospital in Piestany, the doctors stated that her injuries were irreconcilable with life. At the request of her husband, V. Rybarova was released to go home, where she died in the night hours. She was buried on August 24, 1968 in Sulekovo. The Trnava District Public Security investigator discontinued the investigation on November 21, 1968, due to inability to identify the driver of the tank.

ZSIGARDI Alojz

Alojz Zsigardi (b. 24.3.1923 Topolniky, d. 21.8.1968 Topolniky)
Hungarian nationality. When a military convoy drove through Topolniky early in the morning of August 21, 1968, Alojz Zsigardi left his house for the street, where horses stood harnessed to a wagon. He tried to calm them down, but some of the tanks went by on the right roadside, causing the horses to bolt, and they cast aside Alojz Zsigardi straight into the route of a tank. The tank ran him over on the right side of the body and he died on the spot. He is buried at the cemetery in Topolniky.

ZINOVJEV Boris

Boris Zinovjev (b. 24.5.1892 Warsaw, d. 25.8.1968)
Polish nationality. On August 25, 1968, he stood at the side of the highway and watched a passing convoy. One of the tanks pinned him down and he died on the spot. He was buried on August 26 at the cemetery in Brezova pod Bradlem.

TEPLAN Dominik

Dominik Teplan (b. 4.10.1908, d. 12.10.1968 Hul)
Slovak nationality. On October 12, 1968 he set out for Nove Zamky, where he wanted to buy medicine for his granddaughter at the pharmacy. At that moment, a military convoy was passing through the village of Hul. While riding his bicycle in the direction of the railway station, Teplan indicated with his hand that he would be turning left, to which the driver of the truck, Laszlo Szabo from the Hungarian army, did not react, and as a result collided with Dominik Teplan. He did not stop after the accident. Eventually the leader’s vehicle behind him stopped, picked up the wounded and took him to the polyclinic in Surian. Dominik Teplan died of his injuries in transit. He was buried at the cemetery in the village of Hul. The military court of the Hungarian People’s Army acquitted Szabo on November 29, 1968 with the rationale that the deceased Dominik Teplan had broken the laws of highway traffic. The court also noted that Szabo had not completely concentrated on driving his vehicle.

KADURA Jozef

(b. 17.3.1915, d. 3.9.1968 Bratislava)
Slovak nationality. By profession a driver of emergency services KUNZ Bratislava. In the evening hours of August 25, 1968, an unlit military troop-carrier moved out from the adjacent Smrecanska Street onto the main street Pionyrska, where he did not give right of way to Jozef Kadura, who was driving a motorcycle. In the accident, he suffered tearing of the abdominal cavity and laceration wounds on the head and limbs. He died in the hospital on September 3, 1968 as a result of his injuries. A day later the investigator of the City Public Security Administration initiated prosecution for bodily harm with the result of death, which it however discontinued on October 24, 1968 for the reason of not being able to identify the driver of the military vehicle.


CENTRAL SLOVAKIA REGION

GAVORNIK Rudolf

(b. 20.4.1950 Zablatie, d. 21.8.1968 Detva)
Slovak nationality, employee of ZTS Dubnica nad Vahom. A day before the occupation he was sent on a business trip to ZTS Detva. On August 21, 1968 at 1:30 pm, a military convoy drove through Detva in the direction of Zvolen. Around 500 people gathered by the highway, calling out to the soldiers and throwing objects at the convoy. The soldiers let fire from a light machine gun, during which Rudolf Gavornik was hit. He died in the evening in Lucenec Hospital as a result of his wounds.

HLAVAC Pavol

Pavol Hlaváč (b. 10.3.1939 Argenteuil (France), d. 25.8.1968 Ladomerska Vieska)
Slovak nationality. Electrician by profession with the SNP Plant in Ziar nad Hronom. On the way to work on August 25, 1968 at 9:50 pm, he crashed with his motorcycle into an unlit military vehicle on the highway in Ladomerske Vieske. He died of injuries on the spot.

LEVAK Jozef

Jozef Levák (b. 22.7.1930 Povazsky Chlmec, d. 21.8.1968 Zvolen)
Slovak nationality. Employee of JZD Victorious February in Banska Bystrica. When on August 21, 1968 at 4:00 pm a convoy of Soviet tanks started to drive through the square of Zvolen, Jozef Levak, according to eyewitnesses, lay down in the path with the intention of preventing them from continuing to drive. An approaching tank did not stop, ran over J. Levak and killed him.

ULICKA Anna

Anna Ulická (b. 7.9.1951 Sucany, d. 28.8.1968 Sucany)
Slovak nationality. Apprentice. On August 28, 1968, she set out to Martin to go shopping. At about 3:30 pm, she was pinned down on the sidewalk by a Soviet tank car driven by soldier Vasil Havriscuk. A further two cars from the convoy did not stop, continued, and ran her over. There is a memorial plaque near the place of the accident from the year 1969.

ZDECHOVAN Stefan

Štefan Zdechovan (b. 14.7.1940 Latky, d. 21.8.1968 Detva)
Slovak nationality. Machine locksmith. On August 21, 1968 at 1:30 pm, a military convoy drove through Detva in the direction of Zvolen. Around 500 people gathered by the highway, calling out to the soldiers and throwing objects at the convoy. The soldiers let fire from a light machine gun, during which S. Zdechovan was hit in the thorax and died on the spot.


EAST SLOVAKIA REGION

BONK Jozef

Jozef Bonk (b. 24.7.1949 Horka, d. 21.8.1968 Poprad)
Slovak nationality. By profession machine locksmith at Piloimpregno. On August 21, 1968, Soviet tanks drove through the city of Poprad in the direction of Svit. After 11:00 am, about 600 citizens obstructed traffic in the square and threw various objects at the military convoy. The crowd ignited several auxiliary fuel tanks. The soldiers let fire, during which Bonk was hit in the stomach. He succumbed to his wounds on the spot. He is buried at the cemetery in Horka. A memorial plaque was placed in the square in Poprad, but removed during normalization. Today there is a memorial plaque in the square dedicated to all victims of the occupation of Czechoslovakia.

CIBERAJ Stefan

Štefan Ciberaj (b. 4.11.1939, d. 21.8.1968 Roznava)
Slovak nationality. Dispatcher with Czechoslovak Railways. During the passage of a military convoy through Roznava on August 21, 1968, he was pinned down by a Soviet tank and pressed to the wall of a residential building. The tank mauled his pelvis and amputated his right leg. He succumbed to his injuries on the way to the hospital.

HAMRAK Michal

(b. 14.3.1952, d. 21.8.1968 Kosice)
Slovak nationality. By profession an apprentice with the East Slovakia Metalworks. On August 21, 1968, at 12:30, he suffered from a penetration wound to the thorax and heart. He died on the spot. The funeral took place on August 24, 1968 in Kosice. His name is mentioned on the memorial plaque on Hlavna Street in Kosice.

HATALA Jan

(b. 20.5.1949 Hnilec, d. 21.8.1968 Kosice)
Slovak nationality. By profession an employee of the East Slovakia Metalworks. He was shot at a Kosice gas station situated in the direction of Presov. He died from gunshot wounds to the liver, duodenum and face. His name is also mentioned on the memorial plaque on Hlavna Street in Kosice.

HORVATH Bartolomej

(b. 23.5.1947 Licartovce, d. 11.9.1968 Kosice)
Slovak nationality. By profession a construction worker building the Hotel Slovan in Kosice. On August 21, 1968, he was hit by a bullet to the stomach and left hand in Kosice. He died as a result of his wounds in the hospital on Rastislavova Street in Kosice. His name is missing from the memorial plaque in Kosice.

KOLESAR Jozef

Jozef Kolesár (b. 19.3.1933 Barca, d. 21.8.1968 Kosice)
Slovak nationality. Laborer. On August 21, 1968, on Liberators’ Square in Kosice, he was hit in the head by a bullet. His name is included on the memorial plaque on Hlavna Street in Kosice.

KORENKO Michal

(b. 1.2.1929, d. 27.10.1968 Spissky Stvrtok)
Slovak nationality. By profession an employee of the railway station at Cingov. In the early-evening hours of October 27, 1968, on his way home from work on a Jawa 250 motorcycle, he crashed into a parked, unlit military vehicle near the village Spissky Stvrtok. He suffered in the collision from wounds to the liver, to which he succumbed while in transit to the hospital in Levoca.

LASZLO Jan

(b. 14.3.1915 Gonczruszka (Hungary), d. 21.8.1968 Kosice)
Hungarian nationality. Skilled shoemaker. Fatally stricken on August 21, 1968 at 3:30 pm on Liberators’ Square in Kosice. His name is on the memorial plaque in Kosice.

MARTONIK Ladislav

(b. 28.12.1944 Kosice, d. 22.8.1968 Kosice)
Slovak nationality. University student. On August 21, 1968, at 1:00 pm, he was shot in the head on a highway in Kosice. He died as a result of his injuries at 9:30 am on August 22, 1968, in the hospital on Rastislavova Street.

MOSTENICKY FRANTISEK

(b. 21.8.1921, d. 21.8.1968 Vazec)
On August 21, 1968, in the morning hours, he set out with his daughter on a motorcycle trip to the High Tatras. Around 1:00 pm, on the highway between Vazec and Strba, he was felled by a tank which pulled out in the wrong direction and dragged Frantisek Mostenicky by the tank treads about 50 meters. His daughter suffered serious wounds.

SABOL Stefan

Štefan Sabol (b. 11.1.1926 Mala Ida, d. 26.9.1968 Saca)
Slovak nationality. By profession chief of a factory’s security detail. On September 12, 1968, eight Soviet soldiers who had drunk alcohol came to a pub on two troop-carriers. Around 8:00 pm, they came out of the pub when a tiff arose between the two, during which one of them was killed. Subsequently the seated soldiers on the troop-carrier let out bursts of automatic fire, injuring three soldiers and Stefan Sabol, who died from his wounds on September 26, 1968.

SEKEL Jan

(b. 30.4.1923 Hnilec, d. 26.10.1968 Slanec)
Slovak nationality. Deputy chief of the Kosice-venkov Department of Public Security. On October 26, 1968, he went for construction materials to finish his home. While driving through the village of Slanec he encountered a military convoy. A Soviet truck with a trench gun in tow forcefully turned to the side to evade another military vehicle. The trench gun, which was mounted only by steel cables, pinned down Jan Sekel’s car and threw him out onto a cement bridge on the right side.

SCHMIEDT Ivan

Ivan Schmiedt (b. 7.7.1941 Rybare, d. 21.8.1968 Kosice)
Slovak nationality. Engineer at Czechoslovak State Railways, student at the Transportation University in Zilina. On August 21, 1968, he was traveling home from work. The tram stopped, due to shots of Soviet soldiers, and passengers scattered. In spite of this, the soldiers shot at them. On the corner of Lenin and Sturovo Streets, Ivan Schmiedt was shot in the head from behind.

STACHURA Miroslav

(b. 12.6.1966, d. 9.10.1968 Kapusany)
Slovak nationality. On October 9, 1968 at 7.50. AM there was a Soviet tank car going through Kapušany, driven by soldier Leon Valentinovič Kluch. At the same time two year old M. Stachura was crossing the street and was driven over by the tank car on the left side of the road. Soldier Kluch had not been accused of bodily harm with the death consequence. It was said, that he had taken all necessary steps to prevent the crash. Little Mirko is buried at the cemetery in Kapušany.